Pharaoh Ant

Monomorium pharaonic

Appearance: Yellow-redish colored body and black colored abdomen. The antennae of paraoh ants have 12 segments forming a club of three segments at the end. The thorax of paraoh ants’ do not have spines.

Behavior: Pharaoh Ant has a preference for nesting in damp warm areas, such as cracks in walls and floors, behind piles of wood, and furniture. Generally trailing can be found around the area where the electric cables and pipes are.

Sign of Infestation: By findings of ant colonies and nests, and ant foraging behavior.

Diseases/Contamination: Allergy and contamination in food materials.

Prevention: By reducing food sources that are potentially preferred by ants like food that contain sugar and carbohydrates, by closing any potential access, and by reducing humidity.

Reproduction: After mating, the ant queen will find a nest and start laying her eggs. The queen will provide care of the eggs, larvae, and pupae until the first worker ants appear. The workers start taking care of the colony and collected food. While the workers play a role in expanding the colony, the queen kept on laying eggs. The colonies are mature when wings are formed in males and females mate.


Black House Ant

Ochetellus Glaber

Appearance: Small ant species with deep black color. It has a prominent petiole which distinguishes it from the Ghost Ant. These ants are 2.5mm in size and are slightly smaller and sturdier than the Ghost ant variety.

Behavior: Black House ant prefer sweet liquid from other insects and plants. They also like seeds and plants, so they often become pests in the food storehouse. They travel far away from their nests by following the path and during breeding season, they will gather near the light.

Sign of Infestation: By findings of ant colonies and nests, and ant foraging behavior.

Diseases/Contamination: This species is an expert at building hard-to-spot nests from cracks and crevices, making colony elimination a difficult task. There are more than one queen in the colony and they have fast reproduction cycle.

Prevention: By reducing food sources that are potentially preferred by ants like food that contain sugar and carbohydrates, by closing any potential access, and by reducing humidity.

Reproduction: After mating, the ant queen will find a nest and start laying her eggs. The queen will provide care of the eggs, larvae, and pupae until the first worker ants appear. The workers start taking care of the colony and collected food. While the workers play a role in expanding the colony, the queen kept on laying eggs. The colonies are mature when wings are formed in males and females mate.


Fire Ant

Solenopsis spp.

Appearance: Fire ants are a genus of ants, namely the genus Solenopsis. Worker ants are up to 3mm long and queen ants up to 6mm long. This type of ant is slightly reddish brown. These insects usually live in colonies that can reach up to 100,000 ants

Behavior: The typical fire ant colony produces large mounds in open areas, and feeds mostly on young plants, seeds and occasionally crickets. Fire ants often attack small animals and kill them. Unlike most other ants, who bite and then spray acid on the wound, the fire ant only bites to get a grip and then stings (from the stomach) and injects poisonous alkaloids (piperidine).

Sign of Infestation: By findings of ant colonies and nests, and ant foraging behavior.

Diseases/Contamination: For humans, it is a painful sting, which leaves a sensation similar to what a person feels when they are burned by fire (hence their name) and the side effects of the sting can be deadly for sensitive individuals.

Prevention: By reducing food sources that are potentially preferred by ants like food that contain sugar and carbohydrates, by closing any potential access, and by reducing humidity.

Reproduction: After mating, the ant queen will find a nest and start laying her eggs. The queen will provide care of the eggs, larvae, and pupae until the first worker ants appear. The workers start taking care of the colony and collected food. While the workers play a role in expanding the colony, the queen kept on laying eggs. The colonies are mature when wings are formed in males and females’ mate.


Odorous Ant

Tapinoma Sessile

Appearance: Odorous ants are small, about 2.4 to 3.3 mm in size. dark brown or black in color with one pentiole on the leg of the abdomen. This ant has an uneven thorax. Their distinctive feature is the stench of rotten coconut which is emitted when their bodies are crushed.

Behavior: These ants make nests on walls or empty floors when indoors. Smelly ants enter the house in search of food, preferring sweets and meat. Kitchens and kitchen cabinets are common targets for these pests and they prefer to build their nests indoors near warm locations and close to moisture. Odorous ants also nest outside and can creep indoors through cracks in the foundation or openings around doors and windows.

Sign of Infestation: By findings of ant colonies and nests, and ant foraging behavior.

Diseases/Contamination: As the name implies, Odorous ant releases an unpleasant odor when destroyed. When they attack kitchen storage areas, pests have a tendency to contaminate food products. These ants can bite, but they don’t cause much pain. Home ants that smell nice are recognized as one of the ants most often found in the house.

Prevention: By reducing food sources that are potentially preferred by ants like food that contain sugar and carbohydrates, by closing any potential access, and by reducing humidity.

Reproduction: After mating, the ant queen will find a nest and start laying her eggs. The queen will provide care of the eggs, larvae, and pupae until the first worker ants appear. The workers start taking care of the colony and collected food. While the workers play a role in expanding the colony, the queen kept on laying eggs. The colonies are mature when wings are formed in males and females’ mate.


Ghost Ant

Tapinoma Melanocephalum

Appearance: Ghost ant gets its name because of its size and the pale color of its legs and abdomen, which makes it difficult to be seen and look like they are floating when walking. They have a dark head and thorax and are 1.3 to 1.5 mm in size.

Behavior: Ghost ant is very small and can enter the building through doors and windows with gaps, enter through cracks in the foundation, and sometimes is carried in through ornamental plants that have been infested. They eat sugary foods, cereals, and so on. they can nest indoors and outdoors.

Sign of Infestation: By findings of ant colonies and nests, and ant foraging behavior.

Diseases/Contamination: Allergy and contamination in food materials.

Prevention: By reducing food sources that are potentially preferred by ants like food that contain sugar and carbohydrates, by closing any potential access, and by reducing humidity.

Reproduction: After mating, the ant queen will find a nest and start laying her eggs. The queen will provide care of the eggs, larvae, and pupae until the first worker ants appear. The workers start taking care of the colony and collected food. While the workers play a role in expanding the colony, the queen kept on laying eggs. The colonies are mature when wings are formed in males and females’ mate.


Carpenter Ant

Camponotus spp.

Appearance: Carpenter ants get their name from their nests which are made by digging and tunneling in wood. They don’t eat wood, they just make nests in it. They are reddish, black or a combination of the two, with oval segments. sizes vary by type, up to 1.6 cm.

Behavior: Carpenter ants build their nests outdoors in a variety of wood sources, including tree stumps, firewood, or gardens. They need a constant source of water to survive. Carpenter ant will enter the house through wet and damaged wood.

Sign of Infestation: By findings of ant colonies and nests, and ant foraging behavior.

Diseases/Contamination: Carpenter ant does not eat wood but damages wood through its nest building. If they break into a building structure, they can pose a threat of significant damage.

Prevention: By reducing food sources that are potentially preferred by ants like food that contain sugar and carbohydrates, by closing any potential access, and by reducing humidity.

Reproduction: After mating, the ant queen will find a nest and start laying her eggs. The queen will provide care of the eggs, larvae, and pupae until the first worker ants appear. The workers start taking care of the colony and collected food. While the workers play a role in expanding the colony, the queen kept on laying eggs. The colonies are mature when wings are formed in males and females’ mate.


Bedbugs

Cimex spp

Appearance: Bedbugs are reddish brown in color, ovate and have no wings. It has a flat body and can hide in crevices. The newly hatched bedbugs are transparent and very small, while the adults are 5 mm in size. Generally, they are transparent and reddish in color after eating the blood of their host.

Behavior: Bedbugs are usually carried in luggage, which allows them to be scattered wherever humans go. They hide in mattresses and furniture and become a problem in households, hotels, dormitories and theaters. Due to their small size controlling them can be very difficult.

Sign of Infestation: They hide on mattresses, cots, carpets. Their stools left blackish brown stains on the mattress, and blood stains when accidentally stepped on.

Diseases/Contamination: Bedbug bites can cause extreme itching and can be irritating because they keep scratching. Besides that, bedbugs’ bites make it difficult to sleep (insomnia) stress, moreover some people are allergic to them.

Prevention: Routinely clean the bed, change the bed linen, clean the carpet, and curtains. Cleaning clothes, luggage and belongings after traveling or staying at the hotel.

Reproduction: Bedbugs need blood for their development from hatching to adulthood. Female eggs lay 200 eggs (3-4 eggs per day). Within 5 months, the bedbug measures around 6 to 10 mm to adulthood and can survive up to 10 months.


Church Bird

Passer spp.

Appearance: Sparrows are small birds that are 12-14 cm in size, have brownish brown color, have strong beaks to eat seeds.

Behavior: Sparrows commonly nest in canopy gaps, roofs, electrical panel boxes, h-beam posts, trees, and roof gaps. Sparrows eat seeds.

Sign of Infestation: They leave white droppings under their perches and they also make nests out of dry straw and find fallen hair.

Diseases/Contamination:In general, birds can carry 60 types of bacteria including salmonella, transmitting diseases such as histoplasmosis, meningitis and encephalitis. They also carry fleas. Their droppings give a dirty impression to buildings and are corrosive to metal objects.

Prevention: The form of the building makes it difficult for birds to perch, install nets, install repellents such as sharp wires, electric wires, and actively clean bird nests.

Reproduction: Sparrows can lay 5 to 6 eggs. The eggs are incubated by males and females together and hatch in under 2 weeks. The chicks will be cared from 15 to 20 days by their mother before they can fly and find food on their own.


Indian Meal Moth

Plodia Interpunctella

Appearance: Adult size up to 1.5 cm, wing color is generally gray with the back of the wing copper. Larvae have a cream color with a brown head.

Behavior: Indian meal moth can manifest a variety of dry foods, such as grains, wheat, flour, cereals, dried fruit and nuts, flour and seasonings.

Sign of Infestation: There is damage to the product, lumps in flour, moth silk, musty smell in the product.

Diseases/Contamination: Moth generally gives damage to products in quality and quantity.

Prevention: Seal product packaging tightly, prevent product leakage, regulate storage room temperature, routinely clean material deposits and fumigation.

Reproduction: Moth undergoes full metamorphosis, through the stages of eggs, larvae, pupae and adult moth.


Almond Moth

Ephestia Cautella

Appearance: Adult size is about 2 cm with dark gray to brown, with lighter undersides of wings. Larva is creamy white with a striped appearance.

Behavior: Almond moths attack dried fruits, nuts, grains, and grains.

Sign of Infestation: There is damage to the product, lumps in flour, moth silk, musty smell in the product.

Diseases/Contamination: Moth generally gives damage to products in quality and quantity.

Prevention: Seal product packaging tightly, prevent product leakage, regulate storage room temperature, routinely clean material deposits and fumigation.

Reproduction: Moth undergoes full metamorphosis, through the stages of eggs, larvae, pupae and adult moth.


Red Flour Beetle

Tribolium Castaneum

Appearance: Adult beetle size is about 3-4 mm, with reddish brown color. The larval phase is long cylindrical and cream colored and has two protrusions on the tail.

Behavior: They attack the starchy products of cereals and they can fly.

Sign of Infestation: They are found close to their food source in splatter and material deposits. Adult beetles can be found crawling on product packaging. In infested products, we can detect color changes and a musty smell arises.

Diseases/Contamination: Flour beetles are one of the most common pests found in stored products. They create a pungent odor and often contribute to the growth of mold in food. They also pollute packed well with skin and dirt. In time, a beetle infestation can fill an entire cupboard with kitchen items that are not edible.

Prevention: Seal product packaging tightly, prevent product leakage, regulate storage room temperature, routinely clean material deposits and fumigation.

Reproduction:
Female beetles lay eggs on a flour deposit; they lay several eggs every day. Eggs can last several months and are very difficult to see in the flour. Larvae will hatch and develop to adulthood in up to 7 weeks, in warm weather their development can be faster.


Tawon

Order Hymenoptera

Appearance: Wasps have 2 pairs of wings attached to the chest (thorax). The size of the wasp varies from 2 to 12 cm, and has a variety of colors, from black to green and metallic blue, and a combination of yellow and black.

Behavior: Wasps can be divided into colonies and solitary wasps. The colony wasp lives socializing and has many members of the colony. Solitary wasps live alone, they lay eggs and leave them to hatch themselves. Some wasps become parasites and predators for other insects.

Sign of Infestation: The sign of wasp infestation depends on the type, in general workers were found and their nests are found.

Diseases/Contamination: Wasps can sting when threatened, but certain types of aggressively attack. Unlike bees, wasps can sting many times, and the toxins from wasps can have an inflammatory effect, dizziness, nausea, fever and are very dangerous for people with allergies.

Prevention: Keep the area clean and reduce food sources and wasp access.

Reproduction: The queen lays eggs without fertilization will produce a male wasp. The male wasp will fertilize the queen and produce a female wasp which eventually becomes a worker wasp. Worker wasp makes a nest, and feeds larvae produced by the queen.


Termite

Coptotermes spp.

Appearance: dark brown to black, with 2 pairs of wings. Workers have a cream color, whereas soldiers have no wings, have large mandibles (claws), a cream-colored abdomen and generally darker heads.Behavior: Coptotermes sp. build their nests underground, the wood they damage usually has accumulated soil or mud. They make tunnels in the structure of buildings to find food, tunnels can be made far from the nest. In the rainy season, moths will come out to form new colonies.

Sign of Infestation: Termite tunnels were found from the ground, damage to the inside of wood or furniture, there were alts that came out of the nest.

Diseases/Contamination: Coptotermes sp. consume cellulose that is found in furniture, paper files or documents, foundations / wood floors, ceilings and wallpapers. They eat without stopping unless disturbed, causing significant structural damage. Damage due to termites can cause material losses of up to billions of rupiah.

Prevention: pre-construction and post-construction treatment, coating wood with termite-proof materials, or not using wood at all.

Reproduction: generally, have 1 primary queen per colony which can produce thousands of eggs throughout its life. Male termites are responsible for fertilizing the queen, while female termites are workers and soldiers. If the colony gets bigger, termites will make new nests (satellites) that are still connected to the main nest or completely separate. During rainy season, they will come out of the nest and approach the light to find a mate, then they make a new nest.


Drywood Termite

Appearance: Drywood termite is generally larger than subterranean termites. Soldier dry wood termites have a large mandible with teeth and a large pronotum, larger than their head. Larons have 2 pairs of wings which quickly release after they swarm. This makes it easy to identify the moths that differentiate them from subterranean termites. Laron can be up to 12 mm in size.

Behavior: Dry wood termites build colonies in wood and some are found in sources of cellulose other than wood. They can build nests without being connected to the ground, often found in attic wood, they only need a little moisture.

Sign of Infestation: Subterranean termites are difficult to detect early, because they are only detected when the infestation is large. In infested wood, there will be grains of wood left over from their manure that are hexagonal in shape and are the same size ie 1 mm. They will remove their excrement from the tunnel, so the mound will be seen outside the wood. Another sign is when the termite colony gets bigger and they are ready to form a new colony when the larvae emerge.

Diseases/Contamination: Their infestation is difficult to know, so damage to building structures or furniture has occurred when they have been detected.

Prevention: pre-construction and post-construction treatment, coating wood with termite-proof materials.

Reproduction: The termite nymph will pass four to seven times to become an adult termite. Laron or sexual caste will come out and swarm when it will form a new colony.